Smart-UPS systems consist of four basic components which include a rectifier; UPS batteries, an inverter, and a Static Bypass Switch.
The rectifier executes a variety of main roles. The first is to transform the input power from AC (Alternative Current) to DC (Direct Current). Its second main function is to recharge the battery, while DC power is still on the inverter.
Depending on the nature of the UPS, the battery adapter can be included in the rectifier module. For smaller, uninterrupted power supply systems (i.e. less than 3 kVA) it is not rare for the rectifier and the battery charger to be different components.
Smart-UPS rectifiers can tolerate large input voltage fluctuations, which means that the device can withstand overloads or spikes without having to engage the batteries.
Batteries in the Smart-UPS system produce backup control when the main power supply fails. The rectifier or the independent battery guarantees that the batteries are always charged.
Smart-UPS battery systems have a minimum of one string of batteries, with the number of batteries needed depending on the UPS DC voltage. Batteries within a set are attached in sequence, but if a specific battery fails, the whole string fails.
Batteries are also internal to the machine with smaller Smart-UPS systems. Whereas in larger solutions, UPS batteries are mostly placed in their own stand-alone cabinets.
This part completes the second period of the double transformation by switching the DC voltage from the rectifier or battery back to the AC output that drives the load capacity.
This method of conversion (AC to DC to AC) and filtering smooth out events such as bursts, spikes, surges, and external disturbances, ensuring the final output is a pure sine waveform.
Static Bypass Switch
This part is a precaution if there is a malfunction inside the UPS system. In the case of UPS loss, the static bypass switch automatically attaches the load to the mains supply, bypassing the rectifier, the batteries, and the inverter.
To be switched to the mains supply is not desirable as the power would not be purified or conditioned as normal in the UPS double-conversion on-line, but it enables the equipment to continue to work while the UPS is being restored or replaced.
Additional UPS Components
Based on the size and form of Smart-UPS, many other typical components may be used, such as fans or capacitors.
In particular, there are also components such as the External Servicing Bypass, which allows UPS to be withdrawn and/or replaced without interrupting setup, the Transient Volt Surge Suppressors (TVSS), and the Basic Network Management Protocol (SNMP)-compliant control and connectivity applications.
Once you’re comfortable with the primary components of your UPS, you’re in a position to make more intelligent choices to keep the system running optimally.
To start with, we suggest scheduling at least two preventive maintenance (PM) visits each year.
These service calls, which involve a wide variety of checks, are intended to ensure the continued health of the vital components listed in this blog.